Summaries of articles
THE FOLK COSTUME OF HELME
Helme parish was situated in the beautiful southern part of Viljandi county. Together with Tarvastu and Paistu parishes, Helme belonged ethnographically to the eastern Mulgi group of southern Viljandimaa. The centre of this area was the Tarvastu parish, from where the influences reached Paistu, Viljandi and to some extent, to the Helme parish. At the same time, Helme was quite receptive to innovations and was therefore in several respects different from other Mulgi parishes. For example, there are no records in Helme on the typical wraps worn in all other Mulgi parishes, the central part of which were made of fine plain-woven linen, and in the ends of which stripes were woven in relief from coarse blackish-blue and fine red woollen yarn. Neither did the five-coloured rugs, highly popular in Halliste, Karksi, Tarvastu and Paistu, ever become a fashion here. Here women continued to wear black wrap shawls. As concerns the headgear, following the example of the neighbouring Rõngu parish, the women of Helme wore small lace coifs and beside the longcoat knitted jackets became popular here.
The Helme women’s outfit around mid-19th century included a fine linen shirt, a striped woollen skirt oar a linen wrap-skirt, a linen robe, a black woollen or linen wrap-shawl, a black woollen longcoat or knitted jacket, a sheepskin coat, an apron, a belt, the Mulgi kerchief or a small lace coif, woollen stockings that were wide at calves, mittens and simple shoes for footwear. Girls from Helme wore similar clothes, but no apron and kerchief. Girls wore hair bands on their head.
The mid-19th century jewellery included small brooches that were used to fasten the shirt, circular brooches, conical brooches of average size, beads and rings. In earlier centuries also silver chains, silver beads, coins, square brooches, ring brooches, heart-shaped brooches, penannular brooches and rings were worn in Helme.
The Helme men’s outfit around mid-19th century included a white linen shirt, linen or woollen three-quarter trousers, a shortcoat, a robe, a black woollen longcoat, a sheepskin coat, a woollen belt, stockings with garters, mittens, peasant shoes, a black woollen felt hat or a cap with earflaps. There were not so many differences and old-fashioned features in the men’s clothes in southern part of Viljandi county as in women’s clothes. The Mulgi longcoat was used for the longest time, being in general use here as late as the last decades of the 19th century.
Over the years plenty of folk costumes have been collected in the ethnographical collection of the Viljandi museum. Unfortunately, not all the 11 parishes of the former Viljandi county are equally represented. There are substantial gaps that prevent us from having a complete picture of the traditional clothes of our ancestors, how the clothes were worn and developed. With Halliste and Karksi parishes, Helme is among the most poorly represented areas. From Helme parish only 3 figured belts, one mitten, 9 items of jewellery with leather and cloth remnants from the medieval grave at Leebiku and 2 spiral pins are in the collection.
To fill in the gap in the textile collection, the museum ordered copies of all the folk costumes of former parishes in Viljandi county, including those of Helme, from local handicraft artists. The Helme outfit was made by Valve Alamaa, long-time instructor of the handicraft circle of the Viljandi Museum. The costume (VM 10496) was made on the basis of literary sources and the examples from Estonian National Museum, and it includes a shirt, a skirt, an apron, a lace coif, a belt and stockings.
MUSEUM FROM THE POINT OF VIEW OF INFORMATION ECOLOGY
Our whole world is being affected by the consequences of the pervasive sweep of technology, especially communications and computing technology. Whether they wish it or not, the collecting institutions and museums among them are significant players in information based society. Museums could become the
focus for generating ordered and systematic information about the whole material and immaterial world. Natural history museums and archives have shown us the way. The collections are the foundation for everything museums do. The traditional objectives of museums are to collect and to preserve the
material objects. Now we can make collections of information, too. Digital information presents new opportunities, but also new challenges for the production, marketing, distribution and preservation of information. The most prevalent popular metaphor, the information highway, is somewhat misleading. A new model - information ecology - can bring new thinking to bear on these challenges. An information ecology is a system of people, practices, technologies, and values in a local environment. Like their biological counterparts, information ecologies are diverse, continually evolving and complex. Rather than a narrow focus on technology, information ecology puts how people create, distribute, understand and use information.
KIVISAARE STONE AGE SETTLEMENT AND BURIAL SITE
Aivar Kriiska, Kristiina Johanson
Kivisaare Stone Age settlement and burial site is located in Viljandi county, Meleski village, on the Kivisaare drumlin about 6 km from Võrtsjärv. The first finds from there were gathered already in the end of the 19th century and in the 20th century several archeological excavations have been carried out in Kivisaare (Martin Bolz, Richard Hausmann, Max Ebert, Aarne Mikael Tallgren, Richard Indreko and Lembit Jaanits). Altogether 27 skeletons were dug out that different researchers have dated to the Mesolithic, Neolithic, Bronze Age or generally to the Stone Age. In addition to the material from the cemetery, finds indicating a settlement site (flint flakes and few artifacts of secondary processing, Corded Ware sherds etc) were also obtained from there to a certain extent.
New archeological excavations in Kivisaare Stone Age settlement and burial site took place in July and August of 2002. It was decided to conduct additional research on the site in order to find out the existence of the Mesolithic settlement, specify the age of the cemetery and obtain more information on the settlement of the Corded Ware Culture.
During the fieldwork the area of 61 m² was opened in the southern part of the Kivisaare drumlin and the extent of settlement layers was studied with test-pits and phosphate mapping.
Intensive and multicultural settlement layer as well as traces (human bones and tooth pendants) of destroyed cemetery were found. Unfortunately the cultural layer was almost entirely intermingled by the later agricultural activity, the unspoiled (untouched) soil occurred only in the depressions deepened to the bottom moraine. During the excavations and inspections 2712 finds were gathered, most of which belong to the Stone Age. The stone artifacts make up the majority of the finds – altogether 2369, 2299 of them of flint. Prevalent part of the finds are flakes, but there are also numerous blades and fragments of blades. 83 artifacts of secondary processing were obtained, all of them were of flint. The largest group (55) is expectedly comprised of scrapers. The rest of the artifacts comprise retouched blades (probably flint inserts), scraper-burin, knife, bore, retouched flake, triangle and microliths with slanting retouched end and a fragment of an arrowhead. The most remarkable of them are the triangles and the fragment of the arrowhead. Some fragments of bone artifacts and processed animal bones were found, among which there are 5 tooth pendants or fragments of tooth pendants. Out of the gathered pottery sherds, 193 definitely belong to the Stone Age: 20 fragments of Narva type pottery, 4 fragments of Typical Combed Ware and 169 fragments of Corded Ware.
In conclusion it can be stated that while during the earlier relatively large-scale excavations only few flint finds and Corded Ware sherds were collected, the amount of which was insufficient for distinguishing settlement sites, then the excavations of 2002 revealed the existence of several sites at that location.
First an extensive Mesolithic settlement site was situated in Kivisaare that according to the fragment of the arrow head on blade could have started already in the Early Mesolithic. The few sherds of Narva type pottery (which are the first on the territory of Central Estonia) indicate to the habitation of the Early Neolithic (5000-4000 BC) and fragments of Combed Ware to that of the Middle Neolithic (4000-3000 BC). New and more intensive settlement stage can be dated to the end of the Neolithic (3000-1800 BC) when a settlement site of the Corded Ware Culture was situated at this location.
NEW DATA ABOUT LATE PREHISTORIC MANOR ON THE SKY-JUMPING HILL IN VILJANDI
AND THE BESIEGING OF 1223
In Viljandi excavations were continued in the Castle Park area on the present-day ski-jumping hill where remains of a Late Iron Age manor were discovered in 1999. (A more profound survey of the excavation result is provided in the periodical issue: Arheoloogilised Välitööd Eestis / Archaeological Fieldworks in Estonia 2002. Tallinn, 2003.) Together with the area studied in 1999 (15 m2) the excavation plot included 67 m2 (see tables III and IV). The manor which was located ca 150–160 m from the hillfort was destroyed in course of the German conquest in the early 13th century (when comparing the archaeological record with data by Henry of Livonia, during the besieging in August 1223).
The cultural layer consisted of two strata. The upper 50–60 cm was mixed brown sandy soil with finds mostly from the Post-Viking Iron Age (in addition to wheel pottery, however, some handmade Viking Age sherds were found). The soil included also several fragments of 18th century clay pipes and a coin from 1726 which refer to a later disturbance. Under the disturbed layer there was an intensive cultural layer with the thickness of some 3–4 cm from a limited time-span immediately preceding the German conquest.
During the excavations remains of two timber houses, perished in the same fire, were studied. The suggested measures of the first house which was built on the sloping ground were 3,25 x 3,9 m. Judging by the relief, one corner of the house, had to be raised and supported by a timber post. The house had presumably a timber floor. The second house, which was separated from the first one by a narrow passage (45–50 cm), had a floor made of sand.
After conquering the manor site in 1223 the hill was evidently used for besieging the Estonians’ hillfort. Firstly, remains of the first house were covered by a 50–60 cm thick layer of red sandy soil (evidently, the ruins and the pit which remained in the ground after the fire hindered moving on the hill). Later, likewise on the adjacent hills studied in 1999–2001, soil (in all ca. 100–120 m3) was heaped up on the hill plateau to form foundations or platforms for the besieging machines. Taking material either from an adjacent settlement of from the edges of the same hill gives an explanation to the genesis of the brown mixed soil upon the intensive cultural layer. The foundation hills of the besieging machines were destroyed and levelled, judging by the clay pipe fragments, in the 18th century (probably in connection with making the manor park). A heap of stones found in the western end of the excavation plot was evidently also meant to be ammunition for the trebuchet(s).
Finds from the cultural layer (both the disturbed and undisturbed one) include, in addition to pottery, several fragments of spinning whirls, knives, cross pendants, riding equipment and an iron. Numerous beads, bronze spirals, fragments of breast chains and a cross-headed pin refer to numerous female presence. In 2001 also 3 Visby coins from 1160–1225 and 6 crossbow bolts were found. The osteological material is mostly from domestic animals (predominantly big and small cattle and swine). The large number of chicken bones (39%), a suggested indication to status food of the nobility, must especially be stressed.
THE MEDIEVAL STREETS OF VILJANDI
The results of the archaeological investigations mostly from 1989 to 2002 allow the present author to return to the topic of manifold previous scientific interest (e.g Westrén-Doll 1930, Johansen 1955, Alttoa 1978). The mapping of all the pavements that could be located on basis of the existing data (Fig) was accompanied with find analysis and the use of existing radiocarbon samples for purposes of dating. A cobblestone pavement has been unearthed in all the streets that have been considered medieval on basis of the written sources; in addition to that, the free zone at the inner side of the town wall was sometimes paved as well. In many cases, the streets have more than one medieval pavement (e. g at Pikk Street there are 3 medieval levels and one from the late 16th century).
On basis of the stratigraphic situation and the finds gathered, the earliest pavements at Pikk Street can be dated to the 14th century. In spite of the lack of irrefutable evidence, the earliest pavement of Lossi Street should be of comparable age, with those of Sepa, Juudi and Väike-Turu streets might be of similar or slightly younger age. It still seems likely that only in the middle of the 16th century all the by-streets were covered with a cobblestone pavement.
With the exclusion of the southern part of Pikk Street, none of the medieval streets yielded any signs of early medieval buildings or other constructions. Thus it seems most likely that in spite of the absence of 13th-century pavements, the street network has not undergone considerable changes. If the houses and yards were private property, and streets belonged to town ownership, considerable changes in general planning would seem even less likely. Even the total destruction of the town in the Livonian War and the following Polish-Swedish struggle in the second half of the 16th and early 17th century did not affect the location of the streets. Extraordinary conditions, however, may be rehearsed from numerous houses built on street pavement.
Looking at the possible hierarchy of the streets of Viljandi would allow distinguishing Lossi and Storke Streets on basis of their location only. The importance of Pikk Street, on the other hand, has not been stable. From its unsurpassable importance in town formation process, Pikk Street withdrew into a by-pass by the 16th century, until the reconstruction of the present Jaani (St. John’s) Church into the church for the town congregation. The area that was to be left free next to the town wall might have similar functions with the less important streets, yet these were not called even by-streets by the revisers of 1599. The reason for that might lie in the lack of pavement all along its course.
The finds from the streets only fragmentarily correspond to the period of street usage. The existence of the presupposed effect of cleaning support the concept that medieval Viljandi with its local peculiarities fitted into the general framework of Hanseatic towns. The determination of the housing plots, and the analysis of the material expression of the social structure of the medieval town are some possible topics of future research.
THE ORDER CASTLE OF VILJANDI. RESEARCH AND PROBLEMS
The Order castle of Viljandi was the most outstanding medieval stronghold in the territory of Estonia. Here was the centre of the commandery and the master of the Livonian order also resided here for a short period. The treasury of Livonia, and according to some records also the hospital was located in Viljandi.
It has to be admitted that written records about the stronghold of Viljandi are surprisingly scanty and the ideas of the genesis of the stronghold are contradictory. The main reason for that probably lies in the fact that the castle is heavily damaged and the historical data are minimal. The most important sources are the detailed review prepared by the Polish in 1599 and the data of the excavations in the ruins in 1878-79.
According to the chronicles the construction of the stone castle in Viljandi started in 1224. The ring wall is unanimously regarded as being one of the first stone structures; there is no consensus as to what the next buildings were. This article suggests that among the first structures was a separate tower castle, called the Tall Hermann, which was later integrated into the main castle.
In Viljandi stronghold an extraordinarily large number of sculptured details – mainly capitals - has been found in the course of the excavations. Following a widespread opinion these come from the main castle, which was a convent type of building. The current judgement is that the capitals were made in the 1250s-60s at the latest. However, at that time the type of the convent house had not developed yet in Prussia (according to more recent studies this type of castle developed approximately in 1280 – 1300; followed by the spread of the classic convent building in 1300 – 1330). This allows us to suggest that before the convent building there should have been another grand palace in Viljandi. With its abundant sculptured details, it was the grandest building of that time in the whole of Old Livonia, beside the Dome Church of Riga.
The research of the stronghold of Viljandi is progressing mainly on a hypothetical level. In the course of the ongoing conservation works in the castle ruins since 1988 systematic archaeological studies have been conducted, which will hopefully form a substantial database for notably fundamental building-historical conclusions.
ARCHITECTURE OF VILJANDI AT THE TURN OF THE 20TH CENTURY
Viljandi is situated on the crossing point of two ancient trading roads. The ancient fortress surrendered to the Germans in 1223 and it was replaced by new one made of stone, which belong to the Livonian Order. The town Viljandi started to spread nearby and was first mentioned in documents in 1283. In the 14th century Viljandi became the member of the Hanseatic League. The town witnessed its golden age during the Middle Ages and it was followed by serious setback in the 16th century. In Livonian War Viljandi was conquered by the Russians and most of the town perished in fire. In the end of the century Viljandi was transferred to the rule of Poles and during the first decades of 17th century devastated in Polish-Swedish Wars, which were followed by Swedish rule. In The Great Northern War Estonian territory became the part of the Russian Empire.
The new prosperity for Viljandi began in the end of 18th century when it received town bylaw and some of the lands of manor were united with the towns territory. During the 19th century the main building material in town was still wood and most of the houses were built in classicist style. One of the greatest problems for the town were fire accidents and different laws and regulations concerning building and fire safety were given during the century. These regulations had its influence on building activity – the law of building in town Viljandi form 1892 forbids wood as building material on the most of the towns territory, which led to the popularity of brick buildings in the end of the 19th century.
The development of Viljandi during the last years of 19th century and the first decades of 20th century was largely influenced by construction of railway, utilization of new technical achievements and the industrial growth. Despite of that Viljandi remained mainly mercantile. The important factor that limited the development of the town was the fact that Viljandi had reached its borders and was surrounded by the lands of the manor. Extensive growth of the number of Estonians among the population of the city contrasted with the German-speaking city government, which in the fear of losing its power prevented the uniting of the suburbs, which being situated on the lands of the manor grew rapidly.
During the second half of the 19th century Viljandi became one of the main centers of the Estonian national movement. The important role in that development played different cultural and economical societies – The Society of Estonian Farmers, The Society for Supporting Estonian Handicraftsmen and the singing and playing society “Koit”. On the same time main part in the social life of Viljandi was played by intimate German societies.
During the decades before The First World War the impression of the town changed strongly. Small and wooden houses were replaced by multistoried buildings representing different styles and architectural ideas. Ground-owners in Viljandi were mainly Germans but the time forward that tendency began to change. As new brick-factory was opened in the end of 19th century on the other shore of lake Viljandi brick became the main building material in town. The typical late 19th century brick-house in Viljandi is one- or two-storied, has file gable and light historical decoration. These houses were built by local master builders and comparing with former wooden houses were quite modern in its time.
In the beginning of 20th century reached Viljandi the new type of building – villa. The surrounding garden playing the important role in villa architecture, became the main area for that new type of building in Viljandi Trepimägi and surrounding hillside. The first villas in that area were built at the very beginning of the 20th century. These are wooden villas with style elements from art nouveau, German heimat and historicism. Villas were built also in the other parts of the town and although using stone as building material the style influences remained mainly the same. The architects remain in many cases unknown. Exceptional is photographer J. Riet´s private house-atelier by Karl Burman who represents national-romantic line of Estonian architecture, being very good example of that style.
During the first decades of the 20th century many multistoried business and dwelling houses were built in the center of the town, giving totally new appearance to the main streets of Viljandi. Alike the villa architecture these buildings also represent different historic styles combined with art nouveau and heimat. On the other hand if villas had to be viewable from all angles, the accent here is strongly on the main faeade. The fine examples of that type of buildings are Grand Hotel on the Kindral Laidoner square, Sakala pank on the corner of Tartu and Lossi streets and Mensenkampfs house on the corner of Lossi and Posti street.
To the elite of the architecture of Viljandi in the beginning of 20th century belong also two building which owned by Estonian societies. The house of The Society for Supporting Estonian Handicraftsmen was built in 1903 and had art nouveau and heimat style elements. This building was not very successfully rebuilt in 1913 and has therefore lost its original look. Singing and playing society “Koit” rebuilt its house in 1911. Former modest two-storied stone house was replaced with modern society-building. This house is built in art nouveau style, but has some classicistic decorative elements.
The biggest public building before The First World War in Viljandi remained the courthouse, built in 1895.
KOLGA-JAANI PARISH AND THE HOLDERS OF THE CROSS OF FREEDOM
This article is a continuation to the series of the holders of the Cross of Freedom connected with Viljandi county. In the four previous yearbooks the cross brethren from Kõpu, Tarvastu, Paistu and Karksi parishes were dealt with. This article includes an overview of the holders of the cross from Kolga-Jaani parish, an analysis of their life stories and a brief description of the administrative history of this area.
As an introduction it should be explained that the Cross of Freedom was awarded to 3134 people, mostly for their merits in the Estonian war of independence in 1918–1920. About 2050 of them were Estonian citizens and about 1100 foreigners. By far more than 300 holders were connected with Viljandi county during their lifetime. Of them, 33 had contacts with Kolga-Jaani parish.
27 of the holders were born in Võisiku, Soosaare and Paenasti: Jakob Aaren, Joosep Aas (formerly Aaren), Anton Anni, Jakob Ant, Peeter-Viktor Kanasaar, Julius Kasper, Georg (Jüri) Kesküla, Peeter Kolts, Joosep Korts, August Kull, Georg Kütt, Georg Liiv, Eduard Meijel, August Moks, Theodor Mölter, Arnold-Rudolf Orik, August Paia, Tõnis Pedak, Heinrich Puidak, Elmar Rei (formerly Reinson), Ernst Saar, Jüri Saks, August Schönberg, August-Johannes Teose (formerly Tõnnishof), Anton Unt (aka Hunt), Julian (Julius) Vares and Paul Vares.
Besides them, 6 men were born elsewhere: M.-A. Kepmann, A. Pajur and O. Parvet in Viljandi parish, J. Päsna in Põltsamaa parish, H. Timpson in Karksi parish and A. Pent in Kabala, Pilistvere parish.
The majority of the Cross of Freedom brethren were Lutheran, but 10 had received the sacrament in the Eastern Orthodox Church: J. Aaren, A. Anni, G. Kesküla, P. Kolts, G. Kütt, G. Liiv, A. Pajur, A. Unt J. Vares and P. Vares.
8 men from Kolga-Jaani were officers in the War of Independence: A. Anni, J. Kasper, P. Kolts, G. Liiv, A. Moks, E. Saar, A. Schönberg and A.-J. Teose. P. Kolts was promoted to lieutenant colonel.
Most of the Crosses of Freedom were earned in the infantry, but there were men who received this high decoration for their services in the cavalry, on the armoured train, on the warship, in the artillery and in headquarters. The Cross of Freedom was awarded posthumously to 4 men who perished in the war: M.-A. Kepmann, G. Kütt, H. Puidak and J. Päsna.
In most cases the Cross of Freedom II/3, i.e. for personal bravery was awarded. Two men (A. Moks and A. Schönberg) got the Cross of Freedom I/3, i.e. for military services.
Several of the holders of the cross served in the German army or the Self-Defence Force during World War II. At the same time it should be noted that no one of them fought in the Red Army or cooperated with the Soviet occupation authorities.
Several of the well-known brethren of the Cross of Freedom are worth mentioning, e.g. A.-J. Teose, director of the Trade Department of the Ministry of Economic Affairs; E. Saar, chairman of Tartu County Government; P. Kolts, director of Pärnu Elementary School No 3 and A. Schönberg, adjutant to the head of state.
Seven of the cross brethren (P. Kolts, T. Mölter, A.-R. Orik, T. Pedak, A. Pent, E. Rei, A.-J. Teose) were repressed during the Soviet occupation. Only A.-R. Orik and A. Pent returned home, others lie in unknown graves in Siberia or Estonia. But nearly all of them, except for those who had died earlier experienced the political and economic pressure of the Soviet occupation.
The last to leave this world was A. Pent in 1987 at the age of 92, and he was the oldest holder of the Cross of Freedom who had connections with Kolga-Jaani.
For most of the awardees the last resting-place is known. Ten of them were buried on the Lutheran cemetery of Kolga-Jaani parish and the Orthodox cemetery of Lalsi. Others’ graves are in different other places in Estonia. Three died as political refugees in the West and four were buried in unknown graves in Russia. There is no information about the time of death and burial sites of J. Aas and G. Liiv.
VILJANDI MUSEUM IN 2002
On the Museum’s Web Page Visits
What is characteristic to the year 2002 is an even distribution in the number of the museum web page visits. The decrease in the visits in summer has been quite small in the recent two years (differently from the earlier period). The total number of visits increased more slowly than earlier. The number of visits by years: 1999 – 10 000, 2000 – 19 387, 2001 – 32 536, 2002 - 39 571. The number of average monthly visits rose from 2700 to 3300 within the year. The sections most frequently viewed (share among the top ten, percentage) were the gallery – 16, English page – 14, exhibition – 13, history and contact – 10, news and information – 8, exhibition house and services – 7 and the yearbook – 6.
Staff as of 31.12. 2001
Jaak Pihlak – director
Ain Vislapuu – research director
Anne Jänes – chief treasurer
Tiina Jürgen - researcher, ethnologist
Tiina Parre – researcher, photo and nature collection
Heli Grosberg – researcher, archives and guide services
Herki Helves – researcher, conservator and IT-specialist
Inga Ronk – researcher, library collections
Ebe-Triin Arros – junior researcher, library collections
Meelis Luhomaa – exhibitions, and public relations
Tiina Kütt – bookkeeper and secretary
Lea Maling – reading room services, cleaning personnel
Evi Sarapson – cashier-attendant
Maie Teng – attendant
Edith Henn – attendant
Helle Kimmel – attendant
Kalle Jaaniste – cashier-attendant (at Hüpassaare)
Eduard Melts – housekeeper-caretaker
The collection consisted of 111,619 museal objects as of 31 December 2002. In 2002 3959 new objects were registered. Growth by collections: History 2, Archaeology 1882, Archive 1690, Photo 214, Art 1, Book 170.
WORKbook. Exhibition of book illustrations by Mare Hunt, 23 January – 17 February
Anne Frank’s Story. Touring exhibition on the Holocaust, 20 February – 22 March
Reportage from Gold-Washing. Photographic exhibition of gold washing in the Far East, 27 March – 28 April
Lace Tablecloths. Handicraft exhibition by Anu Uudelt, 1 May – 2 June
Paintings by Villem Ormisson. 5 June – 14 July
The Story of the Zither. Exhibition of musical instruments, 17 July – 4 August
Valve Alamaa 70. Handicraft exhibition by Valve Alamaa, 9 August – 8 September
The Border Guard Fleet. Photographic exhibition, 11 September – 30 September
The Well-Known Relative. Exhibition of the Estonian Genealogical Society, 2 October – 27 October
Time Goes along the Well-Trodden Path... Art exhibition, 30 October – 1 December
Dolls for Grownups. Doll exhibition by Sv. Vetrova, an artist from Narva, 4 December – 31 December
Reportage from Gold-Washing was also exhibited in Saaremaa Museum.
During 2002, the exhibitions of the museum were visited by 16 497 people, including 1100 who visited the branch in Hüpassaare. On 18th May, the day when entrance is free, the number of visitors in the exhibition halls was 628.
Major events and projects
January – March: training programme for tour guides
16 January: opening of the second-floor exhibition halls reflecting the period from the 2nd half of the 19th century to the 1950s
13 – 15 February: seminar on museum work for librarians
29 April: exhibition was opened in the Old Water Tower
3 June: field trip to Võru county, Mõniste Museum and Metsavenna farm
14 November - 19 December: Basics of Museum Work, a 20-hour course for Library Science and IT Science students of Viljandi Culture College
1 November: a study day in Viljandi, with Ivar Leimus from Estonian History Museum lecturing on dating and identifying coins